Sunday, April 02, 2006

Glimpse of Cultural Affinity

-Dr. Biswanarayan Shastry.


At the remote past, not known when, people belonging to different races and ethnic groups settled in this region of Asom, and a composite culture was grown on their living in close proximity for millenia. Though the culture is termed as composite, in fact, a prominent one had absorbed many elements from others. The question as to who were the first settlers or who migrated first to this region, and who followed might be left aside in the present discussion. Scholars traces origin of Austric, Dravidian, Mongoloid, Aryan ( Alpine) and some other races among the people of Assam.

In the mythological period Assam was known as Pragjyotispur and the land is mentioned or reffered to by this in the Mahabharata ans some of the earlier Puranas, and in the later Puranas and Tantras, The land of Assam is mentioned, by the name of Kamarupa. The Kalika a purana, a work of the ninth century A.D. says that whn Naraka, the adopted son of Janaka came and conquered Pragjyotispur, the land came to be known as Kamarupa. However, both the names were currents upto 12th Century A.D. Naraka is an Asura and he belonged to the alpine race . He gave a new dimension to the existing practice or worshipping the female genital part on the traditional burying ground, and prevented the legendry vasistha from practising vamahcrata cleft methods of worship. Naraka became the king of the land after he defeated and killed the ruling Kirata prince Ghataka. This piece of mythology clearly says that the original inhibitants of the land were the Kiratas, and indicates migration of the people of Alpine race. The subsequent event of Narakasura's vast friendship with Banasura indicates that both belonged to the same ethnic group.

The Cultural impact of the Kirata people on the new comer. Alpine people, and for that matter, Aryan people seems to be immense thought proper analysis has not yet been made.

The modern scholars, who are trying to get at the root of cultural behaviours of the people may be divided mainly into three categories according to their approaches. those who are in the first category mainly depend on the language and its word formations with derivatives meanings. Inumerable uses of phrases and the sense they convey etc. The second category depends on folklore and folktales with common motives, whihch appear in different countries and the differences indicate the habit and belief of the people of the country.

The third category is anthropologists and they try to ascertain the origin of man on stdying hair , forehead, skull etc. along with their death and birth rites etc. The distinguishing feature of a particular race or a group of people may be traced, among others, the speech, food habit, ceremony and religious festivals.

Influence of a culture on another culture is due to the mass migration of people from one place to other places. The history of India tells us that people belonging to different races entered India by the west gate at different times and left the stamp of their culture. Assm being situated in the eastern most corner of INdia only a small number of persons could reach here except the aryan people. On the other hand, the people belonging to mongoloid race and the people speaking Mon-Khemer sppech enterd Assam from Tibet, China, Myanmar and other places and the influence of their culture is visible. It is seen that traders from Manchuria in China with commercial items passed through Assam to the western market. Pieces of Bamboo sold in the markets of Kandahar, and the modern uzbekistan were from china and passed through Assam.

On Account of living the peole of differnt ethnic groups side by side the apparent sanskrit names such as pragjyotispur, Kamarupa, Kamakhya etc. are likely to have their origin in the languages of Austro-Asiatic group or the Indo-Burma group of people.

The name of the rivers, such as Dhansirimay be traced in the language of Austric tribe while the names like Dihing, Dihang, Dikhou, etc are from Kirata or Bodo people's speech. The Kirata people now be identifies with Bodo and some other people have contributed many items to the civilization of Assam. The elephant was caught and domesticated long back and used in war and domestic purpose. The Kirata King Ghataka fought Naraka by riding his huge elephant. There are sholars who say that elephant was caught and used first by the Nishada people. Could Nishada of the Puranas be identified with the Kirata ? It is definitely a non Aryan Culture. The Aryan culture has more prominently in the use of horse and the fire. Taking fire in his mouth Videha Madhava crossed the river Karatoya and entered Pragjyoyispur. The kirata people were the worshippers of Siva and they were meat eaters and drinkers and they looked like pillars of gold with their shaven heads. they used elephants in war. It is to be noted that the code words used for elephant driving are same all over India, and East Asian Countries. Incidently it may be mentioned that Bhagadatta, the son of Naraka and the king of Pragjyotispur joined the Kurushetra war with an elephant army and he himself fought the war riding a big elephant. the skill with which he fought with elephant against the Pandava army has been highly praised and he is described as the first in the world those who fight with elephant.

Prathamo gaj aya dhanam prithivyam iti me matiih


All these are mythological and historic or even pre-historic references. Let me now say a few words about the impact of tribal or similar culture on the present day culture of Assam. It is better to say as mututal exchange of thought and beliefs of the people living for generations together. For the birth of a child room in a house kept aside and the woman was considered untouchable for a period of ten days, and during this period a knife or a small weapon made of iron was kept under the matress of the woman. this was perhaps continued since iron age. A bride and bridegroom while ready for the marriage celebration are under fompulsion to have a knife in his and her hands for two-three days till the marriage ceremony was over. This is to ward of the evil eyes od the apadevata from the would be bride and bridegroom. It is not clear fro whom, which community which borowed .

The use of stones as purifying or protecting element is seen when the person from burying ground return home. they are first to put their foot on a peice of stone. If they return in the night they are to remain outside the house till the morning . In the night the apadevatas become stronger and name of them should not be uttered. This belief finds mentioned in the Ramayana , and hence it is clear if this belief has entered into the culture of Aryan people, it entered even before the composition of the Ramayana.

The habit of fish eating by the people of this region and of Bengal are from Mongoloid stock. Similarly eating bamboo shoots, cane shoots, rotten pumpkin are from Tibet0-burman stock. Fish finds it place in the sraddha ceremony and offered to ancestores. The process of assimlation was quickened by the tantras, where fish is one of the makaraas. It is interesting to note that the performance of the religious rite for the death of an elderly person in family the feast offered to the relations and other s is called matsya sparsa, meaning touching the fish i.e. eating fish.

Every racial community has its original dress and material for dress. Karpasa, dress made of cottong is an old one, along with this the folowings are the cloths used in medieval afe; the cloth made of hairs of animals, cloth from the bark of tress, and the cloth made by the yarn from cocoons. the last one is known as resham, which itseld is divided into four categories , anmely mulberry, silk, endi, muga, and tasor. The rearing of worm for yarns is coming from China. The story of Mark Polo , how he menaged to bring the eggs of worms to italy in his stick is known to all. Endi and Muga worm rearing is common to the tribal people which was latter on adopted by other people.

The dress of Assamese ladies includes riha which is not known by other parts of the country is from Khasi ladies.
Siju, a thorny plant is regarded by Bodo peole as the physical symbol of the god shiva is also planted by other Assamese peole. The round shape house us from buddhist stupas, whcih is practiced by Khamtis and some other tribal people and adopted during period of Vaishnava movement for namghar construction.

The Bodo people believe that if a maid cleans the route of the house up to main road she will have long hair. This belief has migrated to the people belonging to other ethnic groups. Adoptation of folktales from one tribe by other tribes is many
One good example is the story of Tejumala, which could be found amongst the tribes of karbis, Kacharis etc.

During the vaishnava movement in Assam, particularly the followers of gopaldeva and Anirudhadeva made certain tribal people belonging to different tribes to embrance vaisnavism and the cult has adopted certain customs from their use. Using the red cap and mona ( bag) and the designation of the leader of the group of devotees as satola may be from tribes. These are only few instances of the vast range of composite culture.


Thursday, March 30, 2006

Tribal Elements in Bihu

Tribal Elements in Bihu

Festivals are the external expression of social behaviour. Scholars like Jacob Grimm, Max Miller, Andrew Lang, Wilhelm Mannhardt ans son made attempts to link beliefs, Primitive and magical rituals with the modern festivals. The tradition of the modern festivals emanated from the beliefs and magical rituals of the ancient community. A traditional festival is based on a ritual and similarly a ritual is based on a belief which aims to enlist supernatural aid to guard of evil. Secondly, a ritual is an enactment of a myth. The Psychoanalytic scholl propounded by sigmund freud tries to explain the origin of ritual and festival out of the cultural evolution of the ego and the super-ego. Traditional festivals may rightly be classified into various generes of which seasonal festivals are worth mentioning. In many respects seasonal festivals may fulfill the demand of agricultural festivals.

The Bihu and Bihu like festivals are called seasonal as well as agricultural festivals. Rituals and festivals are composite whole of various cultural elements of various ethnic groups. The Assamese Society has evolved out of the significant process of interaction between various ethnic groups of this geographical areas. In the realm of festivals too, such type of cultural synthesis is apparent. In the contexts of Bihu and Bihu-like festivals impact of the cultural elements of various ethnic groups or tribal groups cannot be ignored.

In the Bihu festival prevalent in Assam has always been claimed by the female sex as a period of considerable licence, and the exercise of their freedom does not seem to be attended with any stain, blemish or loss of reputation.

Similarly, B. Kakati observes in his writting Visnuite myths and legends : In Assam festivals are observed by all the tribes and women are allowed complete freedom without any stain, blemish or loss of reputation.

Hence, the tradition of the Bihu festival is being carried on to assist in the promotion of abundant harvest. Song and dance are important aspects of the spring time Bihu-festival of Assam which help in the promotion of abundant harvest by way of fertiltity magic. Most of the springtime festivals of the tribal communities of Assam are wedded to song and dance which aim to enhance the fertility of the mother Earth and the promotion of abundant harvest therby. As such, it may rightly be assumed that the tradition of song and dance associated with the spring time Bihu festival prevalent amongst the Non Tribal people of Assam is nothing but a firect impacts of the tribal elements.

Similarly the tradition of HUCHARI song and dance associated with the spring time Bihu festivals of the non tribal Assamese society is a glaring instance of the impact of tribal elements, since, a creation myth regarding the origin of the HUCHARI institution prevalent among the Sonowal Kacharis say that this institution was created by bathau or Mahadeva and thus the tradition of the HUCHARI is started. The tradition of the HUCHARI since to be present in a large section of the tribal people. So it seems to be logical if we say that the Huchari institution has entered into the domain of the springtime Bihu of the non tribal Assamese people from the tribal tradition of the Huchari institution.

The dance movements of the singing styles of both the Bihu and the Huchari dances and songs associated with the springtime Bihu festivals of non tribal Assamese people bear similarities with that of the tribal people to some extent.

Some of the Bodo scholars claim that the word Bihu has emanated from the Bodo term Baisagu. The Baisagu is a springtime festival of the Bodos, which bears many similarities with the Bihu festivals. Like the Baisagu festival, theBihu festival is also celebrated for seven days. Similarly, both the festvals are associated with siongs and dances of erotic nature.

Similarly the Bihu festival bears resemblance with the baykhu festival celebrated by the Rabhas in the spring season. The term Bihu seems to have smanated from the term baykhu, means merriment given by God. simalarly the Dimasa Kacharis also celebrated the BUSHU festivals along with singing and dancing like the Bihu Festival.

The myth entitled Bardaichila is associated with the non-tribal spring time Bihu which explains the origin of the festival. Amongst the Bodos also there is a myth entitled Bardichikla which explains the origin of the Baisagu. As such, the Bardai Chikla myth is an outcome of the impact of the Bardai Chikla myth current in the Bodo Societies.

The Springtime Festivals irrespective of the tribal or the Non tribal are always associated with weaving, since in the context of the springtime festivals the tribal women weave Gamocha or Gamocha likes cloths, eg, Phali to presrnt to members of the family and to close relatives. The Gamocha is also offered to pay respects or reverence as they do in tibet with a similar piece of cloth. The tradition of weaving was started in Assam by the women of mongoloid family, since they were good weavers. The women of the non tribal Assamese society has learnt this art from women of the tribal society. Like the tribal women of Assam, the non-tribal women give same emphasis on the art of weaving. The women of the high cast people of others parts of India, do not know how to weave. As such , it would not be irrelevant if we say that the tradition of weaving associated with the springtime Bihu festival current amongst the non tribals of Assam has come from the tribal tradition.

In the context of the singing and the dancing of the Bihu song and dance the non tribal Assamese young men use various musical instruments, such as dhol (Small drum); Tal (Cymbal); Pepa ( a pipe, a wind instrument) ; Sina ( horn made of buffalo's horn) ; Taka or Thaka or Tharka ( a piece of bamboo with one part split); gagana (jew's harp) and so forth.

Tal i.e Cymbal is not a tribal musical instrument, but dhol, pepa, tak, gagana and so on, are tribal musical instrumnets. According to a myth prevalent among the Sonowal Kacharis taka was out of the back bone of the mother goddess Parvati. In this context the impact of tribal elements in Bihu festival is evident.

The Bhogali Bihu, i.e winter time festival current in the non-triabl Assamese society may furnish clear evidences of the impact of the cultural elements of the tribal society of Assam. This Bihu indicates the gathering in of the harvest. Important features of the Magh Bihu complex like community fishing, community hunting, construction of Bhela-Puji and Bhela-ghar or Meji, preparation of cuna-pitha or cuna caul and various pithas prepared with rice and rice powder and others, community feasts ( or communal feasts), burining of Meji, tying of thatch around fruit bearing trees, calling out to dogs and offering them rice, using of half burnt sticks and bamboos along with ashes for enhacing the fertility of feilds and gardens, various games and recreations such as egg-fighting, baffalo fighting, bird-fighting and so forth may be entered into the body of the Magh-Bihu celebrated by the non tribal Assamese people, from tribal tradition.

On the first day of the Magh-Bihu it is customary to take a little left over rice kept soaked in water and mati-kalai dal. The taking of left over rice kept soaked in wter seems to be popular among the non-tribal Assamese people. To substantiate this assumption a popular traditional proverb may be cited.

Puhar panta maghat khay !
hatir saman bal pai !!

One who eats rice soaked in water on the Bihu-day (Magh Bihu) prepared on the preceding day of the Bihu-day i.e. in the month of Puh will get strength equal to an elephant.

The water of the soaked rice may be equated to rice-beer. Rice beer is regarded as an important beverage in the tradition of the mongoloid people. Although the non tribal Assamese people do not take rice beer openly, nevertheless they take paita bhat along with water and this kind of rice without any restriction or hesitation. Taking of rice beer and paita bhat is a tribal habit accepted by the non tribal Assamese people.

Belief goes that if one does not eat baked yam on the Bihu day surely he will be widely current amongst the non tribal Assamese society. This is nothing but tribal elements in the Bhogali Bihu.

Worship of corn-deity and other malignant forces for welfare of paddy fields is a tribal habit taken over by the non tribal Assamese people particularly the Hindus in the context of the autumn time Bihu festival i.e Kati Bihu.
From the above discussion, it is clear that the root of the Bihu festival as a whole, may be trced back in the mongoloid culture, and various cultural elements of Hinduism such as Cattle worship, fire worship and so forth have been incorporated with the festival subsequently.

Observes Praphulladatta Goswami:
Cattle worship is an Aryan cultural trait, but in Assam the cultural pattern which took into itself this trait is an important non-aryan festival-the springtime Bihu.


An abstract from a paper written by Dr. Nabin Chandra Sarma, Professor, Department of Folklore Research, Guwahati University, Guwahati-14. and published by Goverment of Assam, Directorate of Assam Institute of Research for Tribals and Scheduled castes , Guwahati-22. in it's Bulletin Volume-I : Number-XII:2000.



Wednesday, March 29, 2006

Cultural contribution of scheduled castes and schedule tribes of Assam towards Assamese.

Cultural contribution of scheduled castes and schedule tribes of Assam towards Assamese.

-Morningkeey Phangcho

Assam as we see in the beginning of the twenty first century was not so in previous centuries in spheres of geography, sociology and humanities. Assam is now a truncated area of the British dominated Assam which was known as Pragjyotisha, Kamarupa, Lohityadesha etc in early classical literature. The present state of Assam is in the eastern region consisting of twenty six districts bounded by sisterly neighboring states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya. Even the state of Sikkim is linked with Assam in political and regional perspective.

The classical and vedic literature of India described the primitive inhabitants of India as Nisada, Savara, Chanda, Munda, Dravida, Dasa-Danava, Asura, Kirata, Arya, and the like. The human civilization in the sum total of cultures reflected in diverse races and tribes of the world. It is very difficult to differentiate the cultures of so called schedule tribe and schedule castes of India as well as Assam in terms of the non-schedule castes and non-schedule tribes as envisaged in the constitution of India originally drafted by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar intended for the republic of India since 1950. The schedule castes and tribes are listed in the different states of India on the basis of their habitat, backwardness, customs and tradition. It is no different in Assam.

Culturally the tribal people of Assam have contributed immensely towards the formation of the culture of Assamese. There are an element of tribalism in Bihu and other festivals of Assam. However I will limit my article with special reference to languages.

Assam is the meeting ground of diverse races who settled down in this territory with their cultures, traditions and spoken languages. Austroloids, mongoloids, tibeto-burmans, alpines, Dravidian , negritos, Aryans etc migrated to Assam through different routes and contributed lots in different aspects of life towards their neighbouring people i.e other community in the close contact. This way these people, later on identified as Assamese as the majority group was known as Assamese.

Assamese culture which appear today as a composite culture of various cultural items. Assamese culture because of the tribal and non-tribal mixture appears to be a duplication of Indian culture. If Assam linguistically is a mini India, Its culture is also a mini form of India composite culture.

Tribal elements in Assamese culture particularly of those plains tribes like Bodo, Rabhas, Mishings(Miris) , Tiwas(Lalungs) , Deori, Sonowal Kacharis, and hills tribes like Karbis ( Mikirs) and non schedule ethnic groups like Tai Ahoms, Tai Khamtis, Chutias, Morans, Mataks and Koch Rajbongshis in respect of sicifacts, menifacts, agrifacts and artifacts are conspicuously noticeable.

The broad Hindu social spectrum as seen in Assam is largely moulded by conversion of animistic tribal groups to the Hindu fold. The Bodos, Rabhas, Lalung ( Tiwas) Mech, hojai, Mishing, Sonowal kacharis, Barmans and Deoris of Plains tribes and the Karbis (Mikirs) and Dimasa Kacharis of the Hills tribes, The Tai Ahoms, Chutias, Morans, Mataks, Chaodangs, Koch Rajbangshis constituted the bulk of Hindu population by conversion and sanskritisation. Thus Many of the Assamese peasentry who are branded as Non-Tribals, have had tribal cultural elements in the distant past.

Linguistically besides the vocabulary Assamese language is also under influence of some phonological and morphological items of the various tribal languages, for which Assamese phonemes have developed some peculiar pronunciation. Sibilants i.e unvoiced glottal fricative/x/representing /s /s /s in Assamese is quite peculiar. There may not be any direct influence of tribal language, but some indirect influences of tribal language spekers pronounce Assamese /x/ as either /kh/ or /h/ for which the probability of indirect influence is observed. Samething is observed in case of the aspirated consonant. Loss of long vowels in Assamese, no doubt is a historical development, bit in such historical growth and development at the kamrupi apabhramsa and avahatta stage there might have some influence of the tribal languages for close contact of the speakers of these two types of languages. Assamese does not possess cerebrals and dental phonemes, which are used in writing , but pronounce as alveloar phonemes. Here also role of the close association with the tribal languages are considered as an important factor.

The gender i.e Masculine and feminine is indicated in Assamese by some suffixes like a, I, ini, etc. But using the words indicating masculine or feminine as adjective to identify the gender in Assamese is the result of tribal contact.

Eg:

Mata Hati ( Male)--------Maiki Hati ( Female)

Mata Para------------------Maiki Para

Mata Mah------------------Maiki Mah

Such use of male and female indicative is the result of tribal languge influence.

Another important item is personal definitive or personal affixes of nouns of relationship. Words of relationship in Assamese take on different personal affixes according to the relationship indicated with the first the second and the third person. In second person horrific and inferior is also considered by the affixes.

Eg:

----------------My ---------Yours( Inf) --------Yours ( Inf) ------------His

Father ---------Bopai ----------Baper ------------Bapera ----------Bapek

Mother ---------Ma------------ Mar ------------Mara ----------------Mak

------------------Ai -------------ayer -------------ayera ------------------ayek

Son -----------Po/Putra ----------Puter---------- Putera ---------------Putek

Wife ------------Ghaini ------------ghainiyer -------ghainiyera------ ghainiyek

These suffix er/r , era/ra, ek/yek are not Sanskrit origin. Moreover such use are not available in any other magadhan languages. Here we can compare to the BODO afa “ my father” , namfa , nongfa“your father”, bi fa “ his father” and Karbis( Mikirs) e-po “my father”, nangpo “ your father”, a-po “his father”. Such uses are the result of tribal contact.

The formative suffix –ma , a bodo suffix indicating big is also used in Assamese as in Ballam , ‘a spear’, jalam ‘shining decoration’ . Pekham , ‘Peacock’s dancing with spread plumage. Etc.

The Negative verbs in Assamese has also shown peculiarities which is nothing but the assimilation of the final vowel of the negative particle “ Na” used as prefix with the verb root to indicate negation. Here Influence of the AHOM language is observed eg. Na-Kare, Na-Khale, Ni-Kine, Nu-Phure, Ne-Khele etc.

Bisides Grammar, Vocabulary has been the greatest contribution of the tribal towards the formation of the Assamese language, amongst which The Bodo tribes stand out as the biggest contributor.

Pundit Kaliram Medhi in his well documented book Assamese grammar and origin of the Assamese language has emphasized that there are many tribal elements in Assamese language. The Tibeto-Burman and Tai elements are quite visible. Some of the example of the words which could not be substituted are given below.

  • Words---------------- Meaning----------- Tribe Derived From.

  • Aapa ---------------- Boys ------------------- Bhutia, Koch, Chutia.
  • Aadlahi ---------------- Guest ------------------- Karbi (Mikirs)
  • Kerep------------------- Care --------------------- Karbi(Mikirs)
  • Khang ---------------- Anger ---------------------- Chutia
  • Laopani -------------- Fermented Liquor ------ Tai-Ahoms
  • Hiloi ------------------ Gun --------------------------Tai-Ahoms
  • Baralaa ---------------Widower--------------------- Koch
  • Dong ----------------Irrigation Channel----------- Karbi (Mikirs), Chutias
  • Deka ----------------- Young man ------------------ from “Dekaagu” in Chutias
  • Kalahaas -------- Alkaline prepared
  • ------------------from banana stem ------ ---------- Kacharis
  • Kharisaa ------------ Bamboo Shot-------------------- Kacharis, Karbis
  • Bihu -------------------Bihu Festival ------------------- Deori’s Bisu and
  • --------------------------------------------------------------- Kachari’s Baisagu.
  • Anali ----------------- Troubles ---------------------- Bodo
  • Abra ------------------- Foolish ------------------------ Bodo
  • Tangan --------------- Beating Stick ------------------ Bodo
  • Batar --------------------- weather ----------------------- Karbi’s Botor & Bodo’s Bouther.
  • Haphalu -----------------Out Hill------------------------- Bodo
  • Jakhala ------------------Ladder -------------------------- Bodo
  • Hoja --------------------- Simple -------------------------- Bodo
  • Dokhar ----------------- Piece of cut off----------------- Bodo
  • Mena --------------------Crooked -------------------------- Bodo
  • Habong ------------------ Silly----------------------------- Bodo
  • Bonda ---------------------Male of a cats-----------------Bodo
  • Cang/chang -------------Platform------------------------- Bodo
  • Lapha -------------------- Vegetable ---------------------- Bodo
  • Ufehi ----------------------Dandruff------------------------ Bodo’s Khaofi
  • Dormaha------------------Salary-------------------------Karbi (Mikirs)
  • Etc..... etc.... etc....

Besides the Vocabulary, Place’s name also indicates the greatest contribution of the Tribal towards the formation of the greater Assamese Society. Eg. Kachari’s Names like..Daiyung, Dikrai, Dikrang, Diphu, Dibru, Dimow, Dihing, etc..Chutia’s Chirang Chapori. In Kachari “Di” means Water.

Ahom’s Namdang, Namrup, Namchai..etc. In Ahom language “Naam” means Water.

The Ahom word “Ti” signifies place. Thus place names like Tingkhing, Tiplai, Tipam, Tipuk, Tiok, Tingrai, Tihu, Tipling etc are the gifts of the Ahoms.

Karbi’s Lamding, Lanka, Langcholiate, Langhing, etc.. The Karbi Word “ Lang” means Water.

Kaziranga name of the famous national park is also the contribution of the Karbis( Mikirs) , which is derieved from “Kajir-a-rang” meaning Kajir’s village . “Kajiror gaon”.

It is said that about 25 % of vocabulary in Assamese is being taken from the tribal languages.

Above is a brief pen picture of the tribal elements in Assamese culture and the entire gamut of the tribal elements could not be covered in this short article. It is admitted that Assamese Culture contains sizeable tribal elements and the synthesis thus created is the characteristic feature of the Assamese life culture preserved through ages.


Refereneces:

1. Tribal Elements in Assamese Culture ...............Dr. G.C. Sharma Thakur, P.44, 2000 Bulletin of Assam Institute of Research for Tribals and Scheduled Castes, Guwahati

2.Cultural Contributions of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of Assam.........Dr. Pramod Chandra Bhattacharya, P.1 ,2000 Bulletin of Assam Institute of Research for Tribals and Scheduled Castes, Guwahati

3.Bulletin of The Tribal Research Institute, Guwahati, Assam, 1987.

4. A Cultural History of Assam, Guwahati, P.137...........B.K.Barua

5. Kirata Janakriti.............Suniti Kumar Chatterjee.